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By Prof. R.K.Shevgaonkar, Dept of Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay.
ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION SYLLABUS :
ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS : Introduction, Radiation Mechanism – single wire, 2 wire, dipoles, Current
Distribution on a thin wire antenna . Antenna Parameters] - Radiation Patterns, Patterns in Principal Planes,
Main Lobe and Side Lobes, Beamwidths, Beam Area, Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivty, Gain
and Resolution, Antenna Apertures, Aperture Efficiency, Effective Hight. Related Problems.
Thin Linear Wire Antennas: Retarded Potentials, Radiation from Small Electric Dipole, Quarterwave
Monopole and Halfwave Dipole – Current Distributions, Evaluation of Field Components, Power Radiated,
Radiation Resistance, Beamwidths, Directivity, Effective Area and Effective Hight. Natural current distributions,
fields and patterns of Thin Linear Center-fed Antennas of different lengths, Radiation Resistance at a point
which is not current maximum. Antenna Theorems – Applicability and Proofs for equivalence of directional
characteristics, Loop Antennas : Small Loops - Field Components, Comparison of far fields of small loop and
short dipole, Concept of short magnetic dipole, D and Rr relations for small loops.
ANTENNA ARRAYS : 2 element arrays – different cases, Principle of Pattern Multiplication, N element
Uniform Linear Arrays – Broadside, Endfire Arrays, EFA with Increased Directivity, Derivation of their
characteristics and comparison; Concept of Scanning Arrays. Directivity Relations (no derivations). Related
Problems. Binomial Arrays, Effects of Uniform and Non-uniform Amplitude Distributions, Design Relations.
NON-RESONANT RADIATORS : Introduction, Travelling wave radiators – basic concepts, Longwire antennas
– field strength calculations and patterns, V-antennas, Rhombic Antennas and Design Relations, Broadband
Antennas: Helical Antennas – Significance, Geometry, basic properties; Design considerations for monofilar
helical antennas in Axial Mode and Normal Modes (Qualitative Treatment).
VHF, UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS - I : Arrays with Parasitic Elements, Yagi - Uda Arrays, Folded
Dipoles & their characteristics. Reflector Antennas : Flat Sheet and Corner Reflectors. Paraboloidal Reflectors
– Geometry, characteristics,types of feeds, F/D Ratio, Spill Over, Back Lobes, Aperture Blocking, Off-set
Feeds, Cassegrainian Feeds].
VHF, UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS - II : Horn Antennas – Types, Optimum Horns, Design
Characteristics of Pyramidal Horns; Lens Antennas – Geometry, Features, Dielectric Lenses and Zoning,
Applications. Antenna Measurements – Patterns Required, Set Up, Distance Criterion, Directivity and Gain
Measurements (Comparison, Absolute and 3-Antenna Methods).
WAVE PROPAGATION - I: Concepts of Propagation – frequency ranges and types of propagations. Ground
Wave Propagation–Characteristics, Parameters, Wave Tilt, Flat and Spherical Earth Considerations. Sky
Wave Propagation – Formation of Ionospheric Layers and their Characteristics, Mechanism of Reflection and
Refraction, Critical Frequency, MUF & Skip Distance – Calculations for flat and spherical earth cases,
Optimum Frequency, LUHF, Virtual Height, Ionospheric Abnormalities, Ionospheric Absorption.
WAVE PROPAGATION – II: Fundamental Equation for Free-Space Propagation, Basic Transmission Loss
Calculations. Space Wave Propagation – Mechanism, LOS and Radio Horizon. Tropospheric Wave
Propagation – Radius of Curvature of path, Effective Earth’s Radius, Effect of Earth’s Curvature, Field
Strength Calculations, M-curves and Duct Propagation, Tropospheric Scattering.
TEXT BOOKS :
1. Antennas for All Applications – John D. Kraus and Ronald J. Marhefka, TMHl, 3rd Edn., 2003.
2. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems – E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, PHI, 2nd ed., 2000.
1. Antenna Theory - C.A. Balanis, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd ed., 2001.
2. Antennas and Wave Propagation – K.D. Prasad, Satya Prakashan, Tech India Publications, New Delhi,
3. Transmission and Propagation – E.V.D. Glazier and H.R.L. Lamont, The Services Text Book of Radio,
vol. 5, Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi.
4. Electronic and Radio Engineering – F.E. Terman, McGraw-Hill, 4th edition, 1955.
5. Antennas – John D. Kraus, McGraw-Hill, SECOND EDITION, 1988.