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Tuesday, April 12, 2011


NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCE

(Electricity from Bio Mass)

INDEX
S.NO.
CONTENTS
1.
ABSTRACT
2.
INTRODUCTION
3.
PROCEDURE
4.
BACKGROUND
5.
AREAS USEFULL FOR CONSTRUCTION OF POWERPLANT
6.
PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCTION
7.
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
8.
USES AND ADVANTAGES
9.
DISADVANTAGES
10.
CURRENT RESEARCH
11.
CONCLUSION
12.
BIBILIOGRAPHY
13.
PHOTOGALLARY

ABSTRACT
Modern life presents several alternatives at every stage. The media inundates us with new products- plasma TV’s, flat screens …. For each product there are numerous alternatives highlighted by attractive advertising and aggressive marketing. Alternatives with new features are created by companies in order to sell their products. Unlike these alternatives, we will see that there is a real need for alternative energy sources. What do we understand by alternative energy sources? In order to understand this, we should understand what the existing or conventional energy use pattern is.
                                           In order to see the scarcity less society we are also implementing new methods for production of electricity. A part of new production, Bioelectricity is one to produce the electricity from biomasses. In this presentation we want to say about the production of electricity, advantages, and disadvantages in the bioelectric plant.
                                           By using this bioelectric plant we can overcome the scarcity of electric power up to some extent. We can make use of the agricultural wastage in a proper way. So production of electricity from bio masses is having much impotence. 

INTRODUCTION

            Energy is nighter created nor be destroyed But it is converted from one form to another form this is called energy conservation. But we should use in a perfect manner to make use of it.
            Take an example of energy circle from one from to another form like.
            Solar energy—Photosynthesis—Biomass—Energy generation.
                               ACCORDING TO 2002 ANNALISES
               BREAKUP OF WORLD PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUPTION
Ø OIL  - 34%
Ø NATURAL GAS – 21%
Ø COAL  - 24%
Ø NUCLEAR  - 8%
Ø LARGE HYDRO -2%
Ø TRADBIOMASS – 9%
Ø RENEWABLES  -2%S
BACKUP OF INDIA’S PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUPTION
Ø COAL   -  53%
Ø GAS    -     10%
Ø OIL     -      33%
Ø HYDRO -    3%
Ø NUCLEAR – 1%
BIOMASSES:-
            (i) Biomass in its traditional solid mass (wood and agriculture residue) and (ii) biomass in non-traditional form (converted into liquid- fuels). The first category is to burn the biomass directly and get the energy. In the second category, the biomass is converted into ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and methanol (methyl-alcohol) to be used as liquid fuels engines. The third category is to ferment the biomass an aerobically obtain a gaseous fuel called bio-gas. It is about this bio gas technology detailed discussion will be given in subsequent article. Biomass includes wood waste and bagasse, which have potential of generating substantial electric power. All these bio-mass are highly dispersed and bulky and contain large amounts of water (50 to 90 per cent). Thus, it is not economical to transport them over long distances, and conversion into usable energy must take place close to the source, which is limited to particular regions. However, biomass can be converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, thereby increasing its energy density and making feasible transportation over long distances.
Terrestrial crops include (1) sugar crops such as sugarcane and sweet sorghum ; (2) herbaceous crops, which are non-woody plants that are easily converted into liquid or gaseous fuels ; and (3) silviculture (forestry) plants such as cultured hybrid poplar, sycamore, sweet gum, alder, eucalyptus, and other hard woods. Current research focuses on the screening and identification of species that are available for short- rotation growing and on the optimum techniques for planting, fertilize-. Ton, harvesting, and conversion.
Animal and human waste are indirect crops from which methane
for combustion and ethylene (used in the plastic industry) can be
produced while retaining the fertilizer value of the manure.    Aquatic crops are grown in fresh, sea, and brackish waters. Both submerged and emergent plants are considered,  including sea weeds, marine algae, and of particular interest, the giant California kelp.
Hence bio energy and energy plantations are the two main features which are discussed in the chapter. Bio gas or methane is produced by the anaerobic decomposition of organic materials. This gas is produced from cow dung and other wastes such as cornhusks, leaves, straw, garbage, flesh of-carcasses, poultry droppings, pig dung, human excreta and sewage. It is estimated that about 100 Crore tones of fresh dung is available in the country, and 67.1 cubic meter of gas per tonne of wet dung can be produced. Aquatic biomass is another source to produce methane gas. It has been estimated that about two lakh hectares of land is covered by water hyacinth spreading West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, TamilNadu, Orissa and Kerala. It can absorb 80% of nitrogen and 60% of phosphorus from the secondary effluent in 5 days. The yield is 148 tones per hectare per year. A huge quantity of agriculture residues is available in the country which goes waste every year. Against the total agricultural waste which could be around 200 million tones, the actual consumption as fuel might be around 40 million tones. It has been estimated that even for the smallest gas plant (2 cu. m.), one should have a regular supply of 45 kg of fresh dung everyday. The animal should preferably be stable bound otherwise the dung would be lost in the pasture. The family size gas plant will cook a day’s meals for a-small family. The rate of gas production will be highest if the mixture in the digester contains solids between 7-9 per cent. Cow dung originally contains about 18% of solids. The bio-gas can also be used to run diesel engines which operate with the mixture of bio gas and diesel oil it can reduce the consumption of diesel oil by about 80% and engine run faster by 43% of extra power with this mixture.

Biomass Conversion Technologies
            A wide variety of conversion technologies is available for manufacturing premium fuels from biomass (see table 7.2.1). Some are simple and well understood like digestion and fermentation ; others like gasification have been tested in large pilot plants and are now being commercialized.
            Each biomass resource—wood, dung, vegetable waste can be treated in many different ways to provide a wide spectrum of useful products. Domestic refuse, for example, can be dried and burnt to provide heat or converted into low calorific value gas by ‘pyrolysis’ (heating without air). Alternatively, it can be stirred into a slurry and digested to yield methane. Like-wise, liquid and gaseous fuels such as methanol and methane can be manufactured by several different routes and from a variety of feedstock.
            The choice of the process is determined by a number of factor— location of the resource and its physical condition, the economics of competing processes, and the availability of a suitable market for the product.
Biomass conversion, or simply bio conversion can take many forms: (1) direct combustion, such as wood waste and bagasse (sugarcane refuge), (2) thermo chemical conversion, and (3) biochemical conversion.
            crops into ethanol. About 500 million gal ethanol per year by 1985, were produced the limited states by the use of surplus gain. It is intended for mixing.
            Each biomass resource—wood, dung, vegetable waste can be treated in many different ways to provide a wide spectrum of useful products. Domestic refuse, for example, can be dried and burnt to provide heat or converted into low calorific value gas by ‘pyrolysis’ (heating without air). Alternatively, it can be stirred into slurry and digested to yield methane. Like-wise, liquid and gaseous fuels such as methanol and methane can be manufactured by several different routes and from a variety of feedstock.
            The choice of the process is determined by a number of factor— location of the resource and its physical condition, the economics of competing processes, and the availability of a suitable market for the product.
            Biomass conversion, or simply bio conversion can take many forms: (1) direct combustion, such as wood waste and bagasse (sugarcane refuge), (2) thermo chemical conversion, and (3) biochemical conversion.
             Woody feedstock’s direct combustion or pyrolysis is probably more productive at present, although steam treatment and new low-energy enzymatic hydrolysis techniques are under development. The energy requirement for distillation is also likely to be cut dramatically. Alcohol can, be separated from the beer by many methods which are now under intensive development. These include solvent extraction, reverse’ osmosis, molecular sieves and use of new desiccants for alcohol drying. It may soon be possible to halve the energy required for alcohol production to produce a greater net energy gain.
            Chemical reduction. Chemical reduction is the least developed of the wet biomass conversion processes. It involves pressure—cooking animal wastes or plant cellulose slurry with an alkaline catalyst in the presence of carbon monoxide at temperatures between 250°C and 400°C. Under these conditions the organic material is converted into a mixture of oils with a yield approaching 50%. If the pressure is reduced and the temperature increased, the product is a high calorific value gas.                                              
PROCEDURE:
                         Mainly we use husk, maize, maize leaf, groundnut shell sawdust, cotton stack, red gram stack as the raw material for production of heat
            From this heat is produced then we have to take water and the taken water is chemically reduced means in the PH-value by adding some chemicals and this water is heated from the heat produced by burning of raw materials .Actually the boiling point of water is 100centegrade but this water is heated up to 485cc and 65guages pressure and this steam is used to rotate the turbine at 9000rpm.This 9000rpm speed is reduced to 1500rpm and supplied to the machine then the A.C. current will be produced by the rotation of turbine.
            Minimum of 6M.V.is produced in a Bio-Electrical plant for producing M.V.we need 40.2towns of raw material in small power plant the minimum of 8towns of raw material is used for producing the heat. This produced A.C. current is transferred to sub station which is having the capacity of 33M.V. and this is supplied to the house hold uses.
BACKGROUND :-
         Actually we are using river water to rotate the turbine and to produce electricity from olden days .We can see the projects near Nagarjunasagar, Srisailum e.t.c……….
            Now a days around 10to15 years we are using this Bio-Electrical plants for production of electricity because the power produced by “Thermal Energy” is not sufficient now a days due to more use of  electric power in industries and for other uses.
       Before this is started in INDIA this process is mainly followed in Belgium, France and other western countries. In Belgium this process started in1989, this process is mainly used in Australia and America. 
AREAS USEFULL FOR CONSTRUCTION OF POWER PLANTS:-
                        As the process consumes plenty of water and Agriculture wastage as raw material this plants should construct at the areas where there is surplus of water and raw material. We must check  and we should check that plant should be nearer to sub station to transfer the power from plant to the sub station .   This plant should be constructed at the outskirts of the city. As this process includes some what of pollution.
 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCTION:-
             The production of electricity is based on the raw materials and capacity of turbines used. If there is more raw materials the production will be more in a small power plant there is production of 6M.V. of A.C. current by using 40.2towns of raw material in such power plants there is use of 8towns of raw material per hour. It takes 1.2 k.g of raw material for converting 1 cubic meter of water in to steam. In this process two types of steams are produced first wet steam is produced at 270cc and this steam is converted into super heated steam at 485cc of heat in such a away that the steam is not visible to the necked eye. In this away the production is based on raw material and capacity of turbine used.

ENVIRONAMENTAL BENEFITS:-
                Before starting this power plants farmers and other peoples used to fire the agricultural wastages in open places which produces more pollution. After starting this power plants pollution  is reduced by using  E.S.P’s means electro static precipitation by using this E.S.P’s the smoke is controlled and it is converted to ash. This ash is used for brick companies in production of bricks. This also the best example for the conservation of energy.
              The water which is flowing to the occasions with out any use is controlled and converted to steam and used for production of electricity in this form we can also make use of water which is going to be wasted. So by using this power plant we can reduce the environmental pollution up to some extent these are the environmental benefits we are getting  from this power plant.


USES AND ADVANTAGES:-
 The main use of this power plant is to reduce the scarcity of electric power. 
   Due to this power plant farmers are getting benefited by selling the raw materials like husk, maize, ground nut Stack etc……
  The small power plant consumer at least of 200 to 300 working labosur. So labour getting benefited due to this.
DISADVANTAGES :
It is difficult to transfer the power produced to the substation.
Even we are using ESP’s some what pollution will occur.

CURRENT RESEARCH :
            There is ongoing research into finding more suitable turbines that could rotate by using less steam.
            It would be done in large scale in India because the production of Bio-masses is here in India.
            There is the pressure from Government of India to construct Bio-Electric plants to overcome the scarcity of electric power. 











CONCLUSION
   Finally I would like to conclude that the Bio-electric plants are most useful now a days in India and other countries to overcome the scarcity electric power and to reduce the environmental pollution.
   I hope that this will be the best process to produce the electric power future.

BIBILIOGRAPHY
Ø      www.google.com
Ø      www.bio-electricpower.com
                      Non-conventional Energy Source by-  G.D.RAI
                      Encyclopedia of Bio-Masses.
Ø      Staff of Bio-Electric Plant in Gopalpuram near to Khamma




                          



PHOTOGALLARY
                

                   
                    
                           
Reviewed by creativeworld9 on 5:43 AM Rating: 5 NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCE ( Electricity from Bio Mass ) INDEX S.NO. CONTENTS ...

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