Abstract and full paper on EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE USE OF SIMAROUBA OIL IN DIESEL ENGINES - creativeworld9

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Sunday, August 28, 2011

Abstract and full paper on EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE USE OF SIMAROUBA OIL IN DIESEL ENGINES


EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE USE OF SIMAROUBA  OIL IN DIESEL ENGINES.

ABSTRACT:

The world is faing crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Rapid depletion of conventional energy is a matter of serious concern for the mankind.
With ever increase demand for fossil fuel and reserves of fossils fuels next 50 years “ENERGY CRISIS” has cost its dark shadows on the modern humans never before. There is a necessity to find alternate fuels for different industrial needs, automobiles and aircrafts.

Different researchers have conducted experiments on vegetables oils as alternative fuels for I.C engines. .In the present work, simrouba oil , which can be produced from simarouba seeds  is tested for its suitability on a diesel engine. A single cylindered, vertical diesel engine selected for this purpose. Different performance curves TFC Vs BP, BTh Vs BP, with varying loads as well as  for  different blends are represented  in this paper .
           
Simarouba oil can be alternative for diesel run engines within the range of experimentation. The performance is expected to be as good as diesel. .  Their high viscosity and  poor  volatility  effects  the  combustion  and  emissions  considerably  in  diesel  engines. Viscosity and volatility of the vegetable oil  can  be  improved  by  adding  ethyl  acetate  and  supercharging  the  inlet  air.
 It is observed that apparently the engine ran smoothly with the simarouba oil some more rigorous tests are required to establish the suitability of the simarouba oil in diesel engines.  Their high viscosity and  poor  volatility  effects  the  combustion  and  emissions  considerably  in  diesel  engines. Viscosity and volatility of the vegetable oil  can  be  improved  by  adding  ethyl  acetate  and  supercharging  the  inlet  air.

 INTRODUCTION
The rising prices and dwindling resources of conventional fuels have led intensive studies on the use of alternative fuels, especially one like vegetable oils .The use of vegetable oil as diesel engine fuel is not a few concept. Infact early engines were demonstrated with vegetable oils .In a developing country like India where mass transportation plays a key role. The suitability of alternative fuels for a diesel fuel engine application, has to be thoroughly investigated. Vegetable oils have some important properties   like cetane number and calorific value to diesel. They have heat contents approximately 80-90% of diesel .
Vegetable oils present a very promising substitute to diesel fuel,  since they are renewable and are produced easily in rural areas .They type of vegetable oils under investigation are simarouba oil, safflower oil, neem  oil, Karangi oil  etc.,

COMPARISION OF STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERSTICS OF DIESEL AND DIESEL AND VEGETABLE OILS
Petroleum based diesel fuel have different chemical structures than vegetable oils. The former contains mostly of saturated hydrocarbons comprises only carbon and hydrogen atoms which are arranged in normal as branched chain structure as well as aromatic structures. Diesel fuel can contain both saturated and straight or unbranched chain unsaturated hydro carbons, but in little amount .On the other hand , vegetable oils are tri glycerides consisting of glycerol esters of fatty acids .These fatty acids vary in their carbon chain lengths and in number of double bonds .Then high molecular weights, oxygen contents and unsaturated assure that they differ markedly from those of hydro carbon fuels (especially diesel fuels) .

DIESEL:
            
                H H H H  H H H H H H H  H H H  
                 |   |    |   |    |   |   |   |   |   |   |    |   |   |
            H-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-H
                 |   |   |    |   |    |   |   |    |   |   |   |   |   | 
                H H H  H H  H H H H H  H H H H

VEGETABLE OIL:

   H      O H H H H H H H  H H H H H H
     |         ||     |    |     |     |     |    |     |      |     |     |    |     |     |
H-C-O-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-H
                  |     |     |     |    |      |     |     |     |     |    |     |     |
                  H H H H H H H H H H H H H

            O  H H H H H H H H  H H H H H
             ||     |    |     |      |     |     |    |     |     |     |     |      |     |    
H-C-O-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-H
                  |      |     |    |     |     |     |     |     |     |    |       |     |
                         H H H H H H H H H H H   H H


             O H H H H H H H H H  H H  H H H H H H
             ||     |      |    |     |     |     |    |     |     |       |    |      |     |    |      |     |    ||
H-C-O-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C
     |                 |     |    |      |    |     |     |    |                    |     |     |                 |     |
      H         H H H H H H H H           H  H H         H H


CHARECTERISTICS OF DIESEL AND VEGETABLE OIL:
OIL       FLASH              SPECIFIC        VISCOSITY                   CALORIFIC
                        POINT             GRAVITY                      (40 C)                         VALUE(MJ/KG)   
Diesel                46 C                 0.85                             1.6-60                              42
SRO                   242 C              0.906                                 43                               37.6                                     

Vegetable oils have about 10% less heating value than diesel oil due to the oxygen content in their molecules .The high viscosity, 35-45 mm^2 /sec as against about 5 mm^2 /sec far diesel engine. This high viscosity can be minimized by dilution with diesel oil or by transesterification or by micro emulsification or by pyrolysis.

Vegetable oils have better ignition qualities for diesel engine than light alcohols, as their cetane numbers are 35-40.The structure of vegetable oils can be converted in to a form which is much more acceptable to the diesel engine, by transesterification .By making use of triglyceride molecule in the vegetable oil with an improved cetane numbers up to 55,viscosity similar to diesel, low carbon residue and calorific value slightly lower than diesel.

The exhaust temperature of these oils are lesser than diesel resulting in higher brake thermal efficiency than diesel engines .The fact that this oil in neat form does not have any aromatics makes these processed vegetable oils well compete with “clean diesel “ without any modifications.

EXPERIMENTAL TEST SET UP :
The test was conducted on ANIL engine, which is a single cylinder, vertical type ,four stroke C.I  ,water cooled , self governed engine, using simarouba oil  as an alternate to diesel oil .

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS:
B.P : -      3.7kw,                      BORE:-      80mm,
SPEED: -1500rpm ,                 STROKE:-110mm 

The temperature of SRO in the fuel tank is maintained at 70 c , in order to increase viscosity by using immersion heater .The main objective of this test is to evaluate the performance of the simarouba  oil in comparision with diesel .The experiment is repeated by using pure diesel ,pure SRO, 75% D+25% SRO ,50%D+50%SRO, 25%D+75%SRO .The experimental results are shown graphically in the following pages .In the graphs TFC  represents total fuel consumption in litres per hour , SFC represents specific fuel consumption in litres per kilowatt hour and SRO represents simarouba oil .

For every oil the following graphs are drawn at various loads .
1. TFC Vs B.P
2. SFC Vs B.P
3. MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY Vs B.P
4. THERMAL EFFICIENCY Vs B.P

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS :-
The data has been processed and calculated .The results have been plotted for every blend of oil TFC Vs B.P at, varying load condition .The individual performance curves for all blends have shown similar variation at that of 100% diesel with in the range of experimentation.

The frictional power for diesel and blends is obtained from the graphs drawn between TFC Vs B.P, from the graph. It is seen that the frictional power varies from 0.67-0.71KW.

1. COMPARISION OF SFC:-
On observation it is seen for all blends the SFC curves show similar trends, while at lower loads the SFC of the blends show clear lower values than 100% diesel, and the SFC is seen to be lower by 10-15% than the 100% diesel .At higher loads the SFC of the blends 25% SRO+75%D, 50%SRO +50%D, 75%SRO+25%D, 100%SRO show clear higher values than
100% D, and SFC is seen to be higher by 35-40% than that of 100%D.

2. COMPARISION OF BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY :-
The plot shows at lower B.P values all the blend show more or less BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY .At higher loads the blends with lesser SRO content show lower efficiency than the 100% diesel , while the higher concentration blends show higher brake thermal efficiency .At all loads the blends with 75% and 100% SRO show about 10% higher efficiency than that of diesel .

3. COMPARISION OF MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY  :-
It is observed that at lower B.P all the blends show similar mechanical efficiency at higher loads also the blends show more or less similar mechanical efficiency.

4. COMPARISION OF HEAT BALANCE SHEETS :-

   1 .Heat Carried By Cooling Water :-
     For blends it is seen that as the concentration of SRO increase heat                                            carried by cooling water increases. For pure SRO the heat carried by the cooling water is similar to pure diesel.

2. Exhaust Gases Heat Energy:-
It is observed that the percentage of heat carried exhaust gases more or less same as that of diesel.

3.Heat Equivalent to B.P:-
It is seen that for all blends the heat carried as B.P increase as concentration of SRO increase .The percentage of heat carried remains more or less same as that of diesel for all blends except for 50-50% where the variation is seem to be about 12%.

4. Frictional Power:-
Heat lost to frictional power is more or less same as that of diesel.

 5.Unaccounted Losses:-
At lower concentration of SRO, unaccounted losses are more by 50% but as concentration of SRO increase the heat loss decreases .For pure SRO unaccounted losses are same for diesel.

CONCLUSION
From the above results we conclude that it is always advantageous to use diesel oil at present.  The parameters like B.P, SFC, thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and carbon content cost as well justified. However in view of the rising prices, dwindling petroleum reserves, search for alternate fuels become necessary.

SRO is a well substitute to the diesel oil, since it has high break thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency. Pure SRO has less carbon content in the residue. The attempts are to be made to establish SRO as L.C engine fuel in future.

REFERENCES:-

 
 1.IC Engines                                      -           Ganeshan
 2.Thermal Engineering                    -           PL . Ballaney
 3.Internal Combustion Engines      -           Mathur & Sharma
 4.Fundamentals of IC Engines        -           Paul G. Will, James H. Smith
 5.Demand For Energy In India NCAER (national council of applied economic research)
Abstract and full paper on EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE USE OF SIMAROUBA OIL IN DIESEL ENGINES Reviewed by creativeworld9 on 11:23 AM Rating: 5 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE USE OF SIMAROUBA  OIL IN DIESEL ENGINES. ABSTRACT: The...

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